Gastric cancer is the second most frequent cause of cancer death worldwide, although much geographical variation in incidence exists. Prevention and personalised treatment are regarded as the best options to reduce gastric cancer mortality rates. Prevention strategies should be based on specific risk profiles, including Helicobacter pylori genotype, host gene polymorphisms, presence of precursor lesions, and environmental factors. Although adequate surgery remains the cornerstone of gastric cancer treatment, this single modality treatment seems to have reached its maximum achievable effect for local control and survival. Minimally invasive techniques can be used for treatment of early gastric cancers. Achievement of locoregional control for advanced disease remains very difficult. Extended resections that are standard practice in some Asian countries have not been shown to be as effective in other developed countries. We present an update of the incidence, causes, pathology, and treatment of gastric cancer, consisting of surgery, new strategies with neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy, or both, novel treatment strategies using gene signatures, and the effect of caseload on patient outcomes.