P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an efflux transporter, controls the pharmacokinetics of various compounds under physiological conditions. P-gp-mediated drug efflux has been suggested as playing a role in various disorders, including multidrug-resistant cancer and medication-refractory epilepsy. However, P-gp inhibition has had, to date, little or no clinically significant effect in multidrug-resistant cancer. To enhance our understanding of its in vivo function under pathophysiological conditions, substrates of P-gp have been radiolabeled and imaged using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET). To accurately quantify P-gp function, a radiolabeled P-gp substrate should be selective for P-gp, produce a large signal after P-gp blockade, and generate few radiometabolites that enter the target tissue. Furthermore, quantification of P-gp function via imaging requires pharmacological inhibition of P-gp, which requires knowledge of P-gp density at the target site. By meeting these criteria, imaging can elucidate the function of P-gp in various disorders and improve the efficacy of treatments.