Toxoplasma gondii: 25 years and 25 major advances for the field

Int J Parasitol. 2009 Jul 1;39(8):935-46. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpara.2009.02.003.


This article is an attempt to identify the most significant highlights of Toxoplasma research over the last 25 years. It has been a period of enormous progress and the top 25 most significant advances, in the view of this author, are described. These range from the bench to the bedside and represent a tremendous body of work from countless investigators. And, having laid out so much that has been discovered, it is impossible not to also reflect on the challenges that lie ahead. These, too, are briefly discussed. Finally, while every effort has been made to view the field as a whole, the molecular biology background of the author almost certainly will have skewed the relative importance attached to past and future advances. Despite this, it is hoped that the reader will agree with, or at least not disagree too strongly with, most of the choices presented here.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Infective Agents / pharmacology
  • Cats
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Female
  • Genome, Protozoan*
  • Host-Parasite Interactions*
  • Humans
  • Life Cycle Stages*
  • Mice
  • Organelles / drug effects
  • Organelles / physiology
  • Phylogeny
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Pregnancy
  • Protozoan Proteins / physiology
  • Protozoan Vaccines
  • Research / trends*
  • Toxoplasma* / isolation & purification
  • Toxoplasma* / physiology
  • Toxoplasma* / ultrastructure
  • Toxoplasmosis* / drug therapy
  • Toxoplasmosis* / immunology
  • Toxoplasmosis* / parasitology


  • Anti-Infective Agents
  • Protozoan Proteins
  • Protozoan Vaccines