Sox proteins are found in all metazoans and are active in many developmental processes. Their function as transcription factors is governed by their DNA-binding properties as much as by their interactions with other transcription factors and cofactors, and subject to modulation by posttranslational modifications. Although most Sox proteins predominantly function as transcriptional activators, there is also evidence for transcriptional repression and architectural roles. Further effects involve complex formation of Sox proteins with transcriptionally relevant factors off DNA. Sox proteins may be additionally active on the posttranscriptional level and are therefore remarkably versatile regulators of gene expression.
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