We characterize CdSe/ZnS quantum dot (QD) binding to genetically modified bacteriophage as a model for bacterial detection. Interactions among QDs, lambda (lambda) phage, and Escherichia coli are examined by several cross-validated methods. Flow and image-based cytometry clarify fluorescent labeling of bacteria, with image-based cytometry additionally reporting the number of decorated phage bound to cells. Transmission electron microscopy, image-based cytometry, and electrospray differential mobility analysis allow quantization of QDs attached to each phage (4-17 QDs) and show that lambda phage used in this study exhibits enhanced QD binding to the capsid by nearly a factor of four compared to bacteriophage T7. Additionally, the characterization methodology presented can be applied to the quantitative characterization of other fluorescent nanocrystal-biological conjugates.
2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.