Tobacco smoking is a major public health issue and a better understanding of tobacco addiction represents an important challenge. Many factors are involved in tobacco addiction, including genetic factors. Taking them into account in smoking cessation programs would allow to better adapt these programs to individual characteristics and improve their rate of success. Given enzymatic induction by tobacco smoke, smoking cessation can nevertheless have important consequences on the metabolism of some drugs, that have to be taken into consideration. Here we present different clinical and genetic aspects of smoking and of smoking cessation. A dose adjustment of drugs influenced by tobacco smoke is proposed when quitting smoking.