Breakfast consumption and its socio-demographic and lifestyle correlates in schoolchildren in 41 countries participating in the HBSC study

Int J Public Health. 2009 Sep;54 Suppl 2(Suppl 2):180-90. doi: 10.1007/s00038-009-5409-5.


Objective: To investigate associations of daily breakfast consumption (DBC) with demographic and lifestyle factors in 41 countries.

Design: Survey including nationally representative samples of 11-15 year olds (n = 204,534) (HBSC 2005-2006).

Statistics: Multilevel logistic regression analyses.

Results: DBC varied from 33% (Greek girls) to 75% (Portuguese boys).In most countries, lower DBC was noticed in girls, older adolescents, those with lower family affluence and those living in single-parent families. DBC was positively associated with healthy lifestyle behaviours and negatively with unhealthy lifestyle behaviours.

Conclusion: Breakfast skipping deserves attention in preventive programs. It is common among adolescents, especially girls, older adolescents and those from disadvantaged families.The results indicate that DBC can serve as an indicator to identify children at risk for unhealthy lifestyle behaviours.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Canada
  • Child
  • Demography*
  • Europe
  • Feeding Behavior*
  • Female
  • Health Surveys*
  • Humans
  • Israel
  • Life Style*
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Social Class
  • United States