Evidence-based guidelines for the management of persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were prepared by an expert panel of the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. These updated guidelines replace those published in 2004. The guidelines are intended for use by health care providers who care for HIV-infected patients or patients who may be at risk for acquiring HIV infection. Since 2004, new antiretroviral drugs and classes have become available, and the prognosis of persons with HIV infection continues to improve. However, with fewer complications and increased survival, HIV-infected persons are increasingly developing common health problems that also affect the general population. Some of these conditions may be related to HIV infection itself and its treatment. HIV-infected persons should be managed and monitored for all relevant age- and gender-specific health problems. New information based on publications from the period 2003-2008 has been incorporated into this document.