Odontoclasts and cementoclasts are considered to play major roles in the internal resorption of dentin and the external resorption of tooth roots. In this study, we evaluated the osteoclast-inducing ability of human dental pulp and periodontal ligament cells, which are mesenchymal cells in dental tissues. These cells expressed RANKL and OPG mRNA constitutively. As osteoclast precursors, CD14(+) monocytes derived from human peripheral blood were isolated, and incubated together with human dental pulp or periodontal ligament cells. Both cell types spontaneously induced the differentiation of CD14(+) monocytes into osteoclasts without osteotropic factors. These results suggest that dental pulp and periodontal ligament cells are involved in regulating the differentiation and function of osteoclasts.