With its rising incidence and prevalence, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major public health concern, both in the United States and worldwide. Recent worldwide initiatives have attempted to garner attention for CKD by emphasizing that the condition is "common, harmful, and treatable." In the United States, as many as 26 million adults may have CKD, an increase from approximately 10% of the US adult population between 1988 and 1994 to >13% just one decade later. Similar rates have been seen worldwide, with a CKD prevalence of 13% in Beijing, China and 16% in Australia. In the United States, the dramatic rise in the prevalence of CKD likely reflects similar increases in obesity and its sequelae-namely, diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. The prevalence of CKD, as well as its associated costs, is expected to continue to increase.