Connexin genes code for proteins that form cell-to-cell channels known as gap junctions. The genes for the known connexins 26, 32, 43, and 46 have been assigned to human chromosomes, 13, X, 6, and 13, respectively, by analysis of a panel of human-mouse somatic cell hybrids using rat cDNA probes. A pseudogene of connexin 43 that lacks an intron of the cx43 gene has been located on human chromosome 5. Furthermore, the genes of the two new connexins 37 and 40 have both been assigned to human chromosome 1. Thus the human chromosomes 1 and 13 each carry at least two different connexin genes. Their exact location on these chromosomes is not yet known. From our results subchromosomal assignments can be deduced for the human cx32 gene to Xq13-p11, the human cx37 gene as well as the human cx40 gene to 1pter-q12, and the human cx43 gene to 6q14-qter. The generation of the connexin multigene family from a hypothetical ancestral connexin gene is discussed.