The 2009 Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) clinical practice guideline on the management of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) is intended to assist the practitioner caring for adults and children with CKD stages 3-5, on chronic dialysis therapy, or with a kidney transplant. The guideline contains recommendations on evaluation and treatment for abnormalities of CKD-MBD. This disease concept of CKD-MBD is based on a prior KDIGO consensus conference. Tests considered are those that relate to the detection and monitoring of laboratory, bone, and cardiovascular abnormalities. Treatments considered are interventions to treat hyperphosphatemia, hyperparathyroidism, and bone disease in patients with CKD stages 3-5D and 1-5T. The guideline development process followed an evidence based approach and treatment recommendations are based on systematic reviews of relevant treatment trials. Recommendations for testing used evidence based on diagnostic accuracy or risk prediction and linked it indirectly with how this would be expected to achieve better outcomes for patients through better detection, evaluation or treatment of disease. Critical appraisal of the quality of the evidence and the strength of recommendations followed the GRADE approach. An ungraded statement was provided when a question did not lend itself to systematic literature review. Limitations of the evidence, especially the lack of definitive clinical outcome trials, are discussed and suggestions are provided for future research.