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Randomized Controlled Trial
, 32 (3), 258-63

Pharmacokinetics and Bioavailability of Sulfadiazine and Trimethoprim Following Intravenous, Intramuscular and Oral Administration in Ostriches (Struthio Camelus)

Affiliations
Randomized Controlled Trial

Pharmacokinetics and Bioavailability of Sulfadiazine and Trimethoprim Following Intravenous, Intramuscular and Oral Administration in Ostriches (Struthio Camelus)

E A Abu-Basha et al. J Vet Pharmacol Ther.

Abstract

A pharmacokinetic and bioavailability study of sulfadiazine combined with trimethoprim (sulfadiazine/trimethoprim) was carried out in fifteen healthy young ostriches after intravenous (i.v.), intramuscular (i.m.) and oral administration at a total dose of 30 mg/kg body weight (bw) (25 and 5 mg/kg bw of sulfadiazine and trimethoprim, respectively). The study followed a single dose, three periods, cross-over randomized design. The sulfadiazine/trimethoprim combination was administered to ostriches after an overnight fasting on three treatment days, each separated by a 2-week washout period. Blood samples were collected at 0 (pretreatment), 0.08, 0.25, 0.50, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h after drug administration. Following i.v. administration, the elimination half-life (t(1/2beta)), the mean residence time (MRT), volume of distribution at steady-state (V(d(ss))), volume of distribution based on terminal phase (V(d(z))), and the total body clearance (Cl(B)) were (13.23 +/- 2.24 and 1.95 +/- 0.19 h), (10.06 +/- 0.33 and 2.17 +/- 0.20 h), (0.60 +/- 0.08, and 2.35 +/- 0.14 L/kg), (0.79 +/- 0.12 and 2.49 +/- 0.14 L/kg) and (0.69 +/- 0.03 and 16.12 +/- 1.38 mL/min/kg), for sulfadiazine and trimethoprim, respectively. No significant difference in C(max) (35.47 +/- 2.52 and 37.50 +/- 3.39 microg/mL), t(max) (2.47 +/- 0.31 and 2.47 +/- 0.36 h), t((1/2)beta) (11.79 +/- 0.79 and 10.96 +/- 0.56 h), V(d(z))/F (0.77 +/- 0.06 and 0.89 +/- 0.07 L/kg), Cl(B)/F (0.76 +/- 0.04 and 0.89 +/- 0.07) and MRT (12.39 +/- 0.40 and 12.08 +/- 0.36 h) were found in sulfadiazine after i.m. and oral dosing, respectively. There were also no differences in C(max) (0.71 +/- 0.06 and 0.78 +/- 0.10 microg/mL), t(max) (2.07 +/- 0.28 and 3.27 +/- 0.28 h), t((1/2)beta) (3.30 +/- 0.25 and 3.83 +/- 0.33 h), V(d(z))/F (6.2 +/- 0.56 and 6.27 +/- 0.77 L/kg), Cl(B)/F (21.9 +/- 1.46 and 18.83 +/- 1.72) and MRT (3.68 +/- 0.19 and 4.34 +/- 0.14 h) for trimethoprim after i.m. and oral dosing, respectively. The absolute bioavailability (F) was 95.41% and 86.20% for sulfadiazine and 70.02% and 79.58% for trimethoprim after i.m. and oral administration, respectively.

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