Fine-tuning of T cell responses during infection

Curr Opin Immunol. 2009 Aug;21(4):367-77. doi: 10.1016/j.coi.2009.07.004. Epub 2009 Jul 29.


Adequate control of infection relies on development of a tailored immune response according to the requirements of a given infection. This is achieved by the continuous crosstalk between innate and adaptive immunity. Pathogen diversity is deciphered via a plethora of receptors converging signals to adaptor molecules; tissue sites and environment generate additional signals that further influence T cell lineage decisions. Within this continuum of interactions, fine-tuning of the ensuing T cell responses together with plasticity of the committed T cells ensure development of balanced immune responses maintaining homeostasis. This review focuses on the multiple mechanisms that govern T cell differentiation during infection.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adaptive Immunity
  • Animals
  • Antigen-Presenting Cells / immunology*
  • Antigen-Presenting Cells / microbiology
  • Antigen-Presenting Cells / pathology
  • Bacteria / immunology*
  • Bacteria / pathogenicity
  • Bacterial Infections / immunology*
  • Bacterial Infections / pathology
  • Cell Communication / immunology*
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Cytokines / immunology*
  • Gene Expression Regulation / immunology
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate
  • Receptors, Pattern Recognition
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology*
  • T-Lymphocytes / microbiology
  • T-Lymphocytes / pathology


  • Cytokines
  • Receptors, Pattern Recognition