Instead of using reconstituted proteoliposomes, in situ investigations of membrane proteins in living cell membranes are important because the heterogeneous and dynamic nature of biomembranes significantly affects their behavior. Protein-specific labeling is a key technique for the detection of a target protein by fluorescence measurements, particularly fluorescence microscopy. However, conventional genetic fusion with fluorescent proteins has several shortcomings. Post-translational labeling methods using a genetically encodable tag and synthetic probes targeting to the tag can overcome these limitations. This review summarizes emerging tag-probe techniques for labeling specific membrane proteins and their applications, including endocytotic internalization, partitioning to specific membrane domains, interprotein interactions, and conformational changes.