Background: We have previously demonstrated that adiponectin is associated with amino terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). Furthermore, we have shown that NT-proBNP is a strong predictor of mortality in these patients. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the value of adiponectin as long-term prognostic marker in patients with atherosclerotic PAD in the same cohort.
Methods: We measured adiponectin serum concentrations in 487 consecutive patients with symptomatic PAD admitted to a tertiary care hospital. The endpoint was defined as all-cause mortality, and the study participants were followed for 5 years.
Results: Of the 487 patients enrolled, 114 died and 373 survived during follow-up. The median adiponectin concentration was higher among decedents than survivors (11.3 vs. 9.1mg/L; p<0.001). Univariate Cox proportional-hazard regression analysis revealed that adiponectin concentrations were associated with 5-year mortality in PAD patients (risk ratio 1.05, 95% CI 1.03-1.07; p<0.001 per 1mg/L increase). Even after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, estimated glomerular filtration rate, clinical stage of PAD, cardiovascular comorbidity, and other potential confounders, the predictive value of adiponectin serum concentrations remained statistically significant (risk ratio 1.03, 95% CI 1.00-1.05; p=0.030 per 1mg/L increase). However, adiponectin lost its independent association with mortality in symptomatic PAD after additional adjustment for NT-proBNP.
Conclusions: In this study, adiponectin serum concentrations predicted 5-year all-cause mortality in patients with symptomatic PAD independently of other established and emerging outcome predictors. Only after adjustment for NT-proBNP, adiponectin lost its independent predictive value.