Here, we present results of the first study of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes circulating in Kyrgyzstan. We focused on the incarcerated population known to be at high-risk for tuberculosis (TB) and with a significant impact on TB incidence in the general population. Beijing genotype was detected in 42 of 56 M. tuberculosis sputum-extracted DNA samples from newly-diagnosed adult pulmonary TB patients. RIF and INH resistance was genotypically detected in 28% and 55% samples; 13 of 15 MDR strains belonged to Beijing genotype. 12-locus MIRU-VNTR typing showed 8 of 56 samples to be mixed cases; 7 of them contained a Beijing strain. MIRU analysis demonstrated a high homogeneity of the studied collection (HGI=0.66) while 28 of 56 strains had a profile 223325153533 corresponding to Beijing/M2 subtype highly prevalent in different Russian settings. Three hypervariable loci, QUB-3232, VNTR-3820 and VNTR-4120, permitted to further subdivide 28 Beijing/M2 strains into 11 subtypes shared by 1 to 9 strains. To conclude, all markers taken together, the penitentiary population of M. tuberculosis in Kyrgyzstan exhibited a strong genetic affinity to Russia and a weak relatedness to East Asia.