Lung cancer is the most frequent cause of cancer-related death in this country for men and women. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of small non-coding RNAs (approximately 21-25nt long) capable of targeting genes for either degradation of mRNA or inhibition of translation. We identified aberrant expression of 41 miRNAs in lung tumor versus uninvolved tissue. MiR-133B had the lowest expression of miRNA in lung tumor tissue (28-fold reduction) compared to adjacent uninvolved tissue. We identified two members of the BCL-2 family of pro-survival molecules (MCL-1 and BCL2L2 (BCLw)) as predicted targets of miR-133B. Selective over-expression of miR-133B in adenocarcinoma (H2009) cell lines resulted in reduced expression of both MCL-1 and BCL2L2. We then confirmed that miR-133B directly targets the 3'UTRs of both MCL-1 and BCL2L2. Lastly, over-expression of miR-133B induced apoptosis following gemcitabine exposure in these tumor cells. To our knowledge, this represents the first observation of decreased expression of miR-133B in lung cancer and that it functionally targets members of the BCL-2 family.