Mammalian stanniocalcin-1 activates mitochondrial antioxidant pathways: new paradigms for regulation of macrophages and endothelium

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2010 Feb;298(2):F248-54. doi: 10.1152/ajprenal.00260.2009. Epub 2009 Aug 5.


The mammalian homolog of the fish calcium regulatory hormone stanniocalcin-1 (STC1) is ubiquitously expressed and likely functions in an autocrine/paracrine fashion. Mammalian STC1 does not appear to exert significant effects on serum calcium, and its physiological role remains to be determined. In macrophages, STC1 decreases intracellular calcium and cell mobility; attenuates the response to chemoattractants; and diminishes superoxide generation through induction of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2). In cytokine-treated endothelial cells, STC1 attenuates superoxide generation and the activation of inflammatory pathways [c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) and NF-kappaB]; maintains the expression of tight junction proteins, preserving the endothelial monolayer seal; and decreases transendothelial migration of leukocytes. Combined, the effects of STC1 on endothelial cells and macrophages predict potent anti-inflammatory action. Indeed, application of the anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) glomerulonephritis model to STC1 transgenic mice that display increased expression of STC1 transgene in endothelial cells and macrophages yields renal protection. Our data suggest that STC1 activates antioxidant pathways in endothelial cells and macrophages and displays cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory actions.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane Disease
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / metabolism*
  • Antioxidants / metabolism*
  • Cytokines / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Cytoprotection*
  • Endothelium / physiology*
  • Glomerulonephritis / prevention & control
  • Glycoproteins / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Ion Channels / metabolism
  • Macrophages / physiology*
  • Mitochondrial Proteins / metabolism
  • Permeability
  • Protein Isoforms / metabolism
  • Receptors, Cell Surface / metabolism
  • Superoxides / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Uncoupling Protein 1


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Antioxidants
  • Cytokines
  • Glycoproteins
  • Ion Channels
  • Mitochondrial Proteins
  • Protein Isoforms
  • Receptors, Cell Surface
  • Uncoupling Protein 1
  • Superoxides
  • teleocalcin