Introducing pharmacy students to pharmacogenomic analysis

Am J Pharm Educ. 2009 Jul 10;73(4):71. doi: 10.5688/aj730471.


Objectives: To implement and evaluate the effectiveness of a laboratory component involving deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) testing to a required pharmacogenomics course.

Design: Second-year doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students extracted DNA from saliva samples, evaluated DNA quantity, and performed genotyping analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms by fast-throughput technology. The students calculated the frequency of polymorphic alleles of the gene encoding arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2); performed stratification of the class into fast, slow, and intermediate acetylators; and discussed the clinical significance of genetic analysis in patients.

Assessment: An attitudinal survey tool with standardized scaled questions was developed and administered to evaluate whether the goals of the laboratory had been achieved. The student responses to the survey demonstrated that introduction of modern, fast-throughput genotyping technologies in the academic process facilitated comprehension of the potential that pharmacogenomics holds for pharmacy practice.

Conclusions: A laboratory session in pharmacogenomics helped students understand the relevance of pharmacogenomic analysis for use in planning/creating individualized medication regimens.

Keywords: DNA; instructional design; pharmacogenomics.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Education, Pharmacy, Graduate / methods*
  • Education, Pharmacy, Graduate / trends
  • Genetic Markers / genetics
  • Genome-Wide Association Study / methods
  • Genome-Wide Association Study / trends
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Pharmacogenetics / education*
  • Pharmacogenetics / trends
  • Students, Pharmacy*


  • Genetic Markers