This is a mini-review of vitamin D(3), its active metabolites and their functioning in the central nervous system (CNS), especially in relation to nervous system pathologies and aging. The vitamin D(3) endocrine system consists of 3 active calcipherol hormones: calcidiol (25OHD(3)), 1alpha-calcitriol (1alpha,25(OH)2D(3)) and 24-calcitriol (24,25(OH)2D(3)). The impact of the calcipherol hormone system on aging, health and disease is discussed. Low serum calcidiol concentrations are associated with an increased risk of several chronic diseases including osteoporosis, cancer, diabetes, autoimmune disorders, hypertension, atherosclerosis and muscle weakness all of which can be considered aging-related diseases. The relationship of many of these diseases and aging-related changes in physiology show a U-shaped response curve to serum calcidiol concentrations. Clinical data suggest that vitamin D(3) insufficiency is associated with an increased risk of several CNS diseases, including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, seasonal affective disorder and schizophrenia. In line with this, recent animal and human studies suggest that vitamin D insufficiency is associated with abnormal development and functioning of the CNS. Overall, imbalances in the calcipherol system appear to cause abnormal function, including premature aging, of the CNS.