Despite tremendous development in chemotherapy for ovarian cancer over the past few decades, the prognosis of advanced cases with massive peritoneal dissemination is still unsatisfactory, and novel treatment modalities that can combine with chemotherapy are urgently needed. We recently developed virotherapy for solid tumors using telomerase-specific replication-selective adenoviruses (Telomelysin: OBP-301), in which the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene promoter has been inserted to direct tumor-specific E1 gene expression. In this study, we investigated the anti-tumor effects of OBP-301, combined with cisplatin (CDDP), on ovarian cancer cells. In vitro treatment of SKOV3 cells with OBP-301 at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.01-100 induced significant cell death in a dose-dependent manner, with moderate cytotoxicity at an MOI of 1-10 and maximal cytotoxicity at an MOI of 100. In contrast, OBP-301 treatment of normal human cells showed no significant cell death at an MOI of 1-10 and exhibited modest cytotoxicity at an MOI of 100. The effects of low-dose CDDP at 0.5-1 microM, which induced only 20% cell death, were significantly augmented by combination with OBP-301 at an MOI of 1-10, finally achieving 40% cell death. Such enhancement of CDDP sensitivity was also observed in CDDP-resistant ovarian cancer cells. The combinatorial effects were further tested using a xenograft mouse model of SKOV3 with peritoneal dissemination. After intraperitoneal administration of OBP-301, we confirmed that injected OBP-301 fused with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene (OBP-401) was preferentially localized to peritoneal disseminations, as determined by fluorescence imaging. Treatment of mice with CDDP at low dose (0.5 mg kg(-1)) had modest effects, showing a 10% decrease in disseminations, whereas combination with intraperitoneal administration of OBP-301 at an MOI of 10 led to enhanced effects, achieving an approximately 80% decrease in disseminations. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed improved overall survival of mice treated with CDDP plus OBP-301 compared with CDDP alone. These findings support the therapeutic potential of intraperitoneal administration of OBP-301 to sensitize ovarian cancer cells to CDDP.