Receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) is known to be involved in both micro- and macro-vascular complications in diabetes. Among numerous truncated forms of RAGE recently described, the C-terminally truncated form of RAGE has received much attention. This form of RAGE, carrying all of the extracellular domains but devoid of the transmembrane and intracytoplasmic domains, is released outside from cells, binds ligands including AGEs, and is capable of neutralizing RAGE signaling on endothelial cells in culture. This form of RAGE is generated as a splice variant and is named endogenous secretory RAGE (esRAGE). Adenoviral overexpression of esRAGE reverses diabetic impairment of vascular dysfunction, suggesting that esRAGE may be an important inhibitor of RAGE signaling in vivo and potentially be useful for prevention of diabetic vascular complications. An ELISA system to measure plasma esRAGE was recently developed, and the pathophysiological roles of esRAGE have begun to be unveiled clinically. Plasma esRAGE levels are decreased in patients with several metabolic diseases including type 1 and type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and hypertension. In cross-sectional analysis, plasma esRAGE levels are inversely correlated with carotid or femoral atherosclerosis. In an observational cohort of patients with end-stage renal disease, cumulative incidence of cardiovascular death was significantly higher in subjects with lower plasma esRAGE levels. These findings suggest that plasma esRAGE may act as a protective factor against and a novel biomarker for the occurrence of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases.
Keywords: AGEs; atherosclerosis; endogenous secretory RAGE (esRAGE); inflammation; metabolic syndrome; receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE); soluble RAGE (sRAGE).