Chromosome 14 transfer and functional studies identify a candidate tumor suppressor gene, mirror image polydactyly 1, in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Aug 25;106(34):14478-83. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0900198106. Epub 2009 Aug 10.


Chromosome 14 allelic loss is common in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and may reflect essential tumor suppressor gene loss in tumorigenesis. An intact chromosome 14 was transferred to an NPC cell line using a microcell-mediated chromosome transfer approach. Microcell hybrids (MCHs) containing intact exogenously transferred chromosome 14 were tumor suppressive in athymic mice, demonstrating that intact chromosome 14 NPC MCHs are able to suppress tumor growth in mice. Comparative analysis of these MCHs and their derived tumor segregants identified 4 commonly eliminated tumor-suppressive CRs. Here we provide functional evidence that a gene, Mirror-Image POLydactyly 1 (MIPOL1), which maps within a single 14q13.1-13.3 CR and that hitherto has been reported to be associated only with a developmental disorder, specifically suppresses in vivo tumor formation. MIPOL1 gene expression is down-regulated in all NPC cell lines and in approximately 63% of NPC tumors via promoter hypermethylation and allelic loss. SLC25A21 and FOXA1, 2 neighboring genes mapping to this region, did not show this frequent down-regulated gene expression or promoter hypermethylation, precluding possible global methylation effects and providing further evidence that MIPOL1 plays a unique role in NPC. The protein localizes mainly to the nucleus. Re-expression of MIPOL1 in the stable transfectants induces cell cycle arrest. MIPOL1 tumor suppression is related to up-regulation of the p21(WAF1/CIP1) and p27(KIP1) protein pathways. This study provides compelling evidence that chromosome 14 harbors tumor suppressor genes associated with NPC and that a candidate gene, MIPOL1, is associated with tumor development.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Cycle
  • Cell Line, Transformed
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14 / genetics*
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / genetics
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / metabolism
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27
  • DNA Methylation
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Fluorescent Antibody Technique
  • Gene Transfer Techniques
  • Genes, Tumor Suppressor
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Mice, Nude
  • Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / pathology
  • Neoplasms, Experimental / genetics
  • Neoplasms, Experimental / metabolism
  • Neoplasms, Experimental / pathology
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods
  • Transfection / instrumentation
  • Transfection / methods
  • Transplantation, Heterologous
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics*
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism


  • CDKN1A protein, human
  • CDKN1B protein, human
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • MIPOL1 protein, human
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27