Supplementary oxygen during resuscitation of the asphyxiated newborn is associated with long-term detrimental effects including increased risk of childhood cancer. It is suspected that the resuscitation procedure results in accumulated DNA damage and mutagenesis. Base excision repair (BER) is the major pathway for repair of premutagenic oxidative DNA lesions. This study addresses DNA base damage and BER in brain, lung, and liver in neonatal mice (P7) after hyperoxic resuscitation. Mice were randomized to 8% oxygen or room air for 60 min in a closed chamber and subsequent reoxygenation with 100% oxygen for 0 to 90 min. During this treatment, 8-oxoguanine accumulated in liver but not in lung or cerebellum. We observed a linear relation between 8-oxoguanine and reoxygenation time in liver DNA from hypoxic animals (n = 28; B = 0.011 [0.001, 0.020]; p = 0.037). BER activity was not significantly changed during resuscitation. Our data suggest that after hypoxia, the capacity for immediate repair in liver tissue is inadequate to meet increasing amounts of DNA damage. The duration of supplementary oxygen use during resuscitation should be kept as short as justifiable to minimize the risk of genetic instability.