Intravitreal triamcinolone for intraocular inflammation and associated macular edema

Clin Ophthalmol. 2009:3:41-7. doi: 10.2147/opth.s4477. Epub 2009 Jun 2.


Triamcinolone acetonide (TA) is a corticosteroid that has many uses in the treatment of ocular diseases because of its potent anti-inflammatory and anti-permeability actions. Intraocular inflammation broadly referred to as uveitis can result from several causes, including the immune system and after ophthalmic surgery. One of the most common reasons for vision loss with uveitis is macular edema. TA has been used for many years as an intravitreal injection for the treatment of ocular diseases. Several case control studies have been reported showing the efficacy of TA in the treatment of intraocular inflammation and associated macular edema caused by Behcet's disease, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome, sympathetic ophthalmia and white dot syndromes. It has also been shown efficacious in cases of pars planitis and idiopathic posterior uveitis. Some authors have reported its use in postoperative cystoid macular edema. Many of the studies on the use of TA in controlling intraocular inflammation and concomitant macular edema showed its effect to be transient in many patients requiring reinjection. Complications can arise from intravitreal injection of TA including elevated intraocular pressure and cataract. Rarely, it can be associated with infectious and non-infectious endophthalmitis. TA may be useful as an adjuvant in the treatment of uveitis and its associated macular edema, especially in patients resistant or intolerant to standard treatment.

Keywords: Behcet’s disease; Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome; cataract surgery; endophthalmitis; macular edema; sympathetic ophthalmia; triamcinolone acetonide; uveitis; white dot syndromes.