The Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver (APASL) set up a working party on acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) in 2004, with a mandate to develop consensus guidelines on various aspects of ACLF relevant to disease patterns and clinical practice in the Asia-Pacific region. Experts predominantly from the Asia-Pacific region constituted this working party and were requested to identify different issues of ACLF and develop the consensus guidelines. A 2-day meeting of the working party was held on January 22-23, 2008, at New Delhi, India, to discuss and finalize the consensus statements. Only those statements that were unanimously approved by the experts were accepted. These statements were circulated to all the experts and subsequently presented at the Annual Conference of the APASL at Seoul, Korea, in March 2008. The consensus statements along with relevant background information are presented in this review.