Missense mutations associated with RFLP haplotypes 1 and 4 of the human phenylalanine hydroxylase gene

Am J Hum Genet. 1990 Jan;46(1):18-25.


We report missense mutations associated with haplotype 1 and haplotype 4 alleles of the human phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene. Individual exon-containing regions were amplified by polymerase chain reaction from genomic DNA of a PKU patient who was a haplotype 1/4 compound heterozygote. The amplified DNA fragments were subcloned into M13 for sequence analysis. Missense mutations were observed in exons 5 and 7, resulting in the substitution of Arg by Gln at residues 158 and 261 of the enzyme, respectively. Expression analysis in heterozygous mammalian cells after site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that the Arg158-to-Gln158 mutation is a PKU mutation, whereas the Arg261-to-Gln261 mutation is apparently silent in the assay system. Hybridization analysis using allele-specific oligonucleotide probes demonstrated that the Arg158-to-Gln158 mutation is present in two of six mutant haplotype 4 alleles among the Swiss and constitutes about 40% of all mutant haplotype 4 alleles in the European population. The mutation is not present in normal alleles or in any mutant alleles of other haplotypes. The results provide conclusive evidence that there is linkage disequilibrium between mutation and haplotype in the PAH gene and that multiple mutations have occurred in the PAH gene of a prevalent haplotype among Caucasians.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Base Sequence
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • DNA / genetics
  • Exons
  • Female
  • Haplotypes
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mutation*
  • Nucleic Acid Hybridization
  • Pedigree
  • Phenotype
  • Phenylalanine Hydroxylase / genetics*
  • Phenylketonurias / genetics
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length*


  • DNA
  • Phenylalanine Hydroxylase