Elevated blood levels of S100B in neuropsychiatric disorders have so far been mainly attributed to glial pathologies. However, increases or dysfunction of adipose tissue may be alternatively responsible. Our study assessed S100B serum levels in 60 adult subjects without a prior history of neuropsychiatric disorders. S100B concentrations were closely correlated with the body mass index (BMI, range 18-45 kg/m(2)) as well as levels of leptin and adipocyte-type fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP/FABP4) that are well-known adipose-related factors. Effect sizes as measured by Cohen's d indicated medium (0.8 > d > 0.5) to strong effects (d > 0.9) of BMI on S100B blood levels. In conclusion, physiological S100B levels in humans appear to closely reflect adipose tissue mass, which should therefore be considered as an important confounding factor in clinical studies examining the role of S100B.
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