The compromised health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients with chronic kidney disease is now well documented. The recent mandate by the Center for Medicare Services in the United States that all dialysis units monitor HRQOL as a condition of coverage has focused attention on the importance of these measures. The challenge for the nephrology care team is understanding how to interpret and utilize the information obtained from these HRQOL measurements. Can HRQOL of these patients be improved? The present review addresses this issue by commenting on strategies that have been used to improve the HRQOL of chronic kidney disease patients. A systematic approach is suggested for nephrology care providers to attempt to evaluate and improve the HRQOL of CKD patients.