This study aimed to investigate the microRNA (miRNA) profile in prostate carcinoma tissue by microarray analysis and RT-qPCR, to clarify associations of miRNA expression with clinicopathologic data and to evaluate the potential of miRNAs as diagnostic and prognostic markers. Matched tumor and adjacent normal tissues were obtained from 76 radical prostatectomy specimens. Twenty-four tissue pairs were analyzed using human miRNA microarrays for 470 human miRNAs. Differentially expressed miRNAs were validated by TaqMan RT-qPCR using all 76 tissue pairs. The diagnostic potential of miRNAs was calculated by receiver operating characteristics analyses. The prognostic value was assessed in terms of biochemical recurrence using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses. Fifteen differentially expressed miRNAs were identified with concordant fold-changes by microarray and RT-qPCR analyses. Ten microRNAs (hsa-miR-16, hsa-miR-31, hsa-miR-125b, hsa-miR-145, hsa-miR-149, hsa-miR-181b, hsa-miR-184, hsa-miR-205, hsa-miR-221, hsa-miR-222) were downregulated and 5 miRNAs (hsa-miR-96, hsa-miR-182, hsa-miR-182, hsa-miR-183, hsa-375) were upregulated. Expression of 5 miRNAs correlated with Gleason score or pathological tumor stage. Already 2 microRNAs classified up to 84% of malignant and nonmalignant samples correctly. Expression of hsa-miR-96 was associated with cancer recurrence after radical prostatectomy and that prognostic information was confirmed by an independent tumor sample set from 79 patients. That was shown with hsa-miR-96 and the Gleason score as final variables in the Cox models build in the 2 patient sets investigated. Thus, differential miRNAs in prostate cancer are useful diagnostic and prognostic indicators. This study provides a solid basis for further functional analyses of miRNAs in prostate cancer.