Dipeptidyl peptidase (DP) 6 and DP10 are non-enzyme members of the dipeptidyl peptidase IV family, which includes fibroblast activation protein, DP8, and DP9. DP6 and DP10 proteins have been shown to be critical components of voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels important in determining cellular excitability. The aim of this paper was to review the research to date on DP6 and DP10 structure, expression, and functions. To date, the protein region responsible for modulating Kv4 channels has not been conclusively identified and the significance of the splice variants has not been resolved. Resolution of these issues will improve our overall knowledge of DP6 and DP10 and lead to a better understanding of their role in diseases, such as asthma and Alzheimer's disease.