Pressed for time: the circadian clock and hypertension

J Appl Physiol (1985). 2009 Oct;107(4):1328-38. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00661.2009. Epub 2009 Aug 13.

Abstract

Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and death. The "silent" rise of blood pressure that occurs over time is largely asymptomatic. However, its impact is deafening-causing and exacerbating cardiovascular disease, end-organ damage, and death. The present article addresses recent observations from human and animal studies that provide new insights into how the circadian clock regulates blood pressure, contributes to hypertension, and ultimately evolves vascular disease. Further, the molecular components of the circadian clock and their relationship with locomotor activity, metabolic control, fluid balance, and vascular resistance are discussed with an emphasis on how these novel, circadian clock-controlled mechanisms contribute to hypertension.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antihypertensive Agents / administration & dosage
  • Biological Clocks* / genetics
  • Blood Pressure* / drug effects
  • Blood Pressure* / genetics
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / genetics
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / metabolism
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / physiopathology*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / prevention & control
  • Circadian Rhythm* / genetics
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Drug Chronotherapy
  • Energy Metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Homeostasis
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / complications
  • Hypertension / drug therapy
  • Hypertension / genetics
  • Hypertension / metabolism
  • Hypertension / physiopathology*
  • Motor Activity
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Vascular Resistance
  • Water-Electrolyte Balance

Substances

  • Antihypertensive Agents