The type III secretion system of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: infection by injection

Nat Rev Microbiol. 2009 Sep;7(9):654-65. doi: 10.1038/nrmicro2199.


The Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa uses a complex type III secretion apparatus to inject effector proteins into host cells. The configuration of this secretion machinery, the activities of the proteins that are injected by it and the consequences of this process for infection are now being elucidated. This Review summarizes our current knowledge of P. aeruginosa type III secretion, including the secretion and translocation machinery, the regulation of this machinery, and the associated chaperones and effector proteins. The features of this interesting secretion system have important implications for the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa infections and for other type III secretion systems.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bacterial Proteins / metabolism*
  • Genes, Bacterial
  • Humans
  • Membrane Transport Proteins / physiology*
  • Models, Biological
  • Multigene Family
  • Protein Transport
  • Pseudomonas Infections / microbiology*
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa / pathogenicity*
  • Virulence Factors / metabolism*


  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Membrane Transport Proteins
  • Virulence Factors