Hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia and renal phosphate wasting are common after kidney transplantation. Animal data suggest that these alterations in mineral metabolism may contribute to calcium phosphate (CaPhos) deposition in the kidney and renal dysfunction. We tested the hypothesis that CaPhos deposition is highly prevalent in the early posttransplant period and is related to a disturbed mineral metabolism. For this purpose, biomarkers of mineral metabolism and renal calcium and phosphorus handling were prospectively assessed in 201 renal transplant recipients. CaPhos deposits were observed in 4.6, 30.4 and 24.7% of protocol biopsies obtained at the time of engraftment, and 3 and 12 months thereafter, respectively. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, high calcium and low serum phosphorus levels were independently associated with renal CaPhos deposition at month 3. The extent of CaPhos deposition correlated significantly with the severity of mineral metabolism disturbances. Renal function after a mean follow-up of 33 months was similar in patients with and without CaPhos deposition at month 3. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that CaPhos deposition is highly prevalent in the early posttransplant period and suggest that a disordered mineral metabolism is implicated in its pathogenesis. The clinical relevance of CaPhos deposition remains to be established.