T1r3 and alpha-gustducin in gut regulate secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009 Jul;1170:91-4. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04485.x.


Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone that underlies the augmented insulin release from the pancreas in response to glucose in the gut lumen more than to intravenous injected glucose (the "incretin effect"). GLP-1, found in enteroendocrine L cells of the gut, regulates appetite and gut motility and is released from L cells in response to glucose. GLP-1-expressing duodenal L cells also express T1r taste receptors, alpha-gustducin, and many other taste transduction elements. Knockout mice lacking alpha-gustducin or T1r3 have deficiencies in secretion of GLP-1 and in the regulation of plasma levels of insulin and glucose. Gut-expressed taste-signaling elements underlie multiple chemosensory functions of the gut including the incretin effect. Modulating hormone secretion from gut "taste cells" may provide novel treatments for obesity, diabetes, and malabsorption.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Gastrointestinal Tract / metabolism*
  • Gastrointestinal Tract / physiology
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 / metabolism*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Neuroendocrine Cells / metabolism
  • Neuroendocrine Cells / physiology
  • Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled / physiology*
  • Transducin / physiology*


  • Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled
  • taste receptors, type 1
  • gustducin
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
  • Transducin