Evaluation of a prime-boost vaccine schedule with distinct adenovirus vectors against malaria in rhesus monkeys

Vaccine. 2009 Oct 19;27(44):6226-33. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.07.106. Epub 2009 Aug 15.


A vaccine that elicits both specific antibodies and IFN-gamma-producing T cells is required to protect against pre-erythrocytic malaria. Among the most promising approaches to induce such complex immunity are heterologous prime-boost vaccination regimens, in particular ones containing live viral vector. We have demonstrated previously that adenovectors serotype 35 (Ads35) encoding the circumsporozoite (CS) antigen or liver-stage antigen-1 (LSA-1) are highly effective in improving the T-cell responses induced by immunizations with protein-based vaccines in a heterologous prime-boost schedule. Here we evaluated the potential of a heterologous prime-boost vaccination that combines the Ad35.CS vector with the serologically distinct adenovector Ad5.CS, in rhesus macaques, after establishing the potency in mice. We show that the heterologous Ad35.CS/Ad5.CS prime-boost regimen elicits both antibody responses and robust IFN-gamma-producing CD8(+) T-cell responses against the CS antigen. Analysis of the quality of the antibody responses in rhesus macaques, using indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) with Plasmodium falciparum-coated slides, demonstrated that this heterologous prime-boost regimen elicits a high titer of antibodies that are able to bind to P. falciparum sporozoites. Level of the IFA response was superior to the response measured with sera of an adult human population living in endemic malaria region. In conclusion, the combination of Ad35.CS, a vaccine based on a rare serotype adenovirus, with Ad5.CS or possibly another adenovector of a distinct serotype, induces a complex immune response that is required for protection against malaria, and is thus a highly promising approach for pediatric vaccination.

MeSH terms

  • Adenoviridae / immunology*
  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Protozoan / blood
  • CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Cellular
  • Immunity, Humoral
  • Immunization Schedule*
  • Immunization, Secondary*
  • Interferon-gamma / immunology
  • Macaca mulatta
  • Malaria Vaccines / administration & dosage*
  • Malaria, Falciparum / immunology
  • Malaria, Falciparum / prevention & control*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Neutralization Tests
  • Plasmodium falciparum / immunology


  • Antibodies, Protozoan
  • Malaria Vaccines
  • Interferon-gamma