Toll-like receptors and innate immunity

Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009 Oct 30;388(4):621-5. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2009.08.062. Epub 2009 Aug 15.


Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are evolutionarily conserved innate receptors expressed in various immune and non-immune cells of the mammalian host. TLRs play a crucial role in defending against pathogenic microbial infection through the induction of inflammatory cytokines and type I interferons. Furthermore, TLRs also play roles in shaping pathogen-specific humoral and cellular adaptive immune responses. In this review, we describe the recent advances in pathogen recognition by TLRs and TLR signaling.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bacteria
  • Eukaryota
  • Host-Pathogen Interactions / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate*
  • Signal Transduction / immunology
  • Toll-Like Receptors / immunology*
  • Viruses


  • Toll-Like Receptors