Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in the evaluation of pancreas transplantation. Standard MRI, magnetic resonance angiography, and MR cholangiopancreatography can demonstrate the changes of the anatomy after transplantation. Vascular complications are assessed by MR angiography. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography reveals ductal changes resulting from acute and/or chronic rejection and determines leaks with the use of a secretin-stimulated MR cholangiopancreatography. Serial contrast-enhanced MRI may detect the diminished perfusion that is related to the graft rejection or vascular complications. In this paper, we reviewed types of pancreas transplantation procedures, complications that arise in a short and/or a long term after the transplantation, and their assessment by MRI.