Tocopherol, carotene, phenolic contents and antibacterial properties of rose essential oil, hydrosol and absolute

Curr Microbiol. 2009 Nov;59(5):554-8. doi: 10.1007/s00284-009-9475-y. Epub 2009 Aug 18.


The antioxidant and antibacterial activities, and total phenolic contents of Rosa damascena Mill. flower extracts (absolute, essential oil and hydrosol) were investigated. The chemical compositions of these extracts were analysed by GC-MS. Phenylethyl alcohol (78.38%) was found to be the main constituent of rose absolute, while citrenellol and geraniol were the major compounds (>55%) of rose essential oil and hydrosol. Tocopherol and carotene levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. The levels of beta carotene (422.3+/-35.6 ppm), alpha tocopherol (2397.1+/-72.5 ppm) and gamma tocopherol (343.1+/-28.4 ppm) of rose absolute were found to be higher than that of essential oil and hydrosol. Their total phenolic contents were also evaluated. The total phenolic content of the tested extracts varied from 5.2 to 2134.3 GAE/mg L(-1). Rose absolute and essential oil contained high levels of phenolics and demonstrated strong antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Chromobacterium violaceum (ATCC 12472) and Erwinia carotovora (ATCC 39048) strains.

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / chemistry
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology*
  • Bacteria / drug effects
  • Carotenoids / chemistry
  • Carotenoids / pharmacology
  • Oils, Volatile / chemistry
  • Oils, Volatile / pharmacology*
  • Phenols / chemistry
  • Phenols / pharmacology
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Rosa / chemistry*
  • Tocopherols / chemistry
  • Tocopherols / pharmacology


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Oils, Volatile
  • Phenols
  • Plant Extracts
  • Carotenoids
  • Tocopherols