Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a central regulator of inflammation, and TNF-alpha antagonists may be effective in treating inflammatory disorders in which TNF-alpha plays an important pathogenetic role. Recombinant or modified proteins are an emerging class of therapeutic agents. To date, several recombinant or modified proteins which acts as TNF antagonists have been disclosed. In particular, antibodies that bind to and neutralise TNF have been sought as a means to inhibit TNF activity. Inhibition of TNF has proven to be an effective therapy for patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other forms of inflammatory disease including psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis, inflammatory bowel disease. Additionally, the efficacy of preventing septic shock and AIDS has been questioned as a result of recent research. The currently available therapies include a soluble p75 TNF receptor:Fc construct, etanercept, a chimeric monoclonal antibody, infliximab, and a fully human monoclonal antibody, adalimumab. Certolizumab pegol is a novel TNF inhibitor which is an antigen-binding domain of a humanized TNF antibody coupled to polyethylene glycol (PEG) to increase half-life, and thus is Fc-domain-free. In this review, we discuss briefly the present understanding of TNF-alpha-mediated biology and the current therapies in clinical use, and focus on some of the new therapeutic approaches with small-molecule inhibitors. Moreover, we examine recent reports providing important insights into the understanding of efficacy of thalidomide and its analogs, as TNF-alpha activity inhibitories, especially in therapies of several inflammatory diseases within the nervous system.