Th17 cells are critical in adaptive immunity and autoimmune disease. The polarized development of Th17, Th1 and Th2 cells is dependent on counterregulatory effects on each other. Whereas IFN-gamma inhibits Th17 development, the effect of IL-17 in human Th1 development is not known. We report a novel negative regulatory role of IL-17 on IL-12R beta 2 expression associated with reduced IL-12 responsiveness. IL-17 decreased IL-12-induced IFN-gamma expression in PBMC and developing Th1 cells, associated with a selective reduction in IL-12R beta 2, and not IL-23R, IL-12R beta 1 or T-bet. Counterregulatory effects of human Th17 on Th1 lineage cytokines may contribute to lineage divergence. In autoimmune disease, IL-17 may reinforce its own developmental programme by reducing IL-12 responsiveness, thus limiting inhibitory effects of IFN-gamma on Th17 development.