Two anthelmintic drugs used as cattle dewormers, ivermectin and moxidectin, were tested for their lethal and sublethal effects on the malarial vectors Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis. In the laboratory, direct addition of ivermectin to bovine blood reduced the survivorship and fecundity of mosquitoes fed on the blood. The median lethal concentration (LC(50)) of ivermectin in the bloodmeal, for the laboratory populations of An. gambiae s.l., was 19.8 ppb. In the field, commercially available formulations containing ivermectin or moxidectin were injected into cattle at three times the recommended dose. Most (90%) of the An. gambiae s.s. that fed on the ivermectin-treated cattle within 2 weeks of treatment failed to survive more than 10 days post-bloodmeal. No eggs were deposited by An. gambiae s.s. that fed on ivermectin-treated cattle within 10 days of treatment. In contrast, the survivorship and egg production of the mosquitoes that fed on the moxidectin-treated cattle were no different from those feeding on untreated cattle. These results indicate that treatment of cattle with ivermectin could be used, as part of an integrated control programme, to reduce the zoophilic vector populations that contribute to the transmission of the parasites responsible for human malaria.