At present 15 to 20 million people are estimated to be infected with pathogenic trypanosome parasites worldwide, mainly in developing countries. There are a number of factors that affect the severity of trypanosomiasis, including the nutritional status of the host. However, the relationship between micronutrient levels and trypanosomiasis outcome has yet to be reported in detail. Here, we demonstrate that the inhibition of alpha-tocopherol transfer protein, a determinant of the vitamin E concentration in host circulation, confers resistance to Trypanosoma congolense infection, evidently owing to oxidative damage to parasite DNA. These results suggest that transient inhibition of alpha-tocopherol transfer gene activity could possibly be exploited as a strategy for both the prevention and the treatment of trypanosomiasis.