The frequency of anxiety and depressive disorders was examined in 69 insulin-dependent diabetic mellitus (IDDM) outpatients and in two control group. Based on self-report measures, these disorders were similar in IDDM sample and in the control groups. In diabetic outpatients, according to DSM-III-R criteria, there was a high lifetime prevalence of not otherwise specified anxiety and depressive disorders (44% and 41.5%), of simple phobia (26.8%), social phobia (24.6%), and agoraphobia - with and without panic disorder (14.6%). Current social phobia, dysthymia and not otherwise specified depressive disorders were associated with impaired glycaemic control. Glycosylated haemoglobin was associated with compliance but psychiatric disorders were not, except for social phobia which was significantly associated with more frequent consultations and a bad compliance for dietary regimen (more snacking). Somatic complications were not associated with anxious and depressive disorders (current or lifetime) or compliance and were best explained by the duration of the illness and impaired glycaemic control.