Tetramethylpentadecane (TMPD, or commonly known as pristane)-induced lupus is a murine model of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Renal disease and autoantibody production strictly depend on signaling through the interferon (IFN)-I receptor. The major source of IFN-I is immature monocytes bearing high levels of the surface marker Ly6C. Interferon production is mediated exclusively by signaling through TLR7 and the adapter protein MyD88. It is likely that endogenous TLR7 ligands such as components of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein complexes are involved in triggering disease. Lupus autoantibodies are produced in ectopic lymphoid tissue developing in response to TMPD. This model is well suited for examining links between dysregulated IFN-I production and the pathogenesis of human SLE, which like TMPD-lupus, is associated with high levels of IFN-I.