Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
Review
, 223 (2), 267-81

Neurogenesis and Alzheimer's Disease: At the Crossroads

Affiliations
Review

Neurogenesis and Alzheimer's Disease: At the Crossroads

Orly Lazarov et al. Exp Neurol.

Abstract

While a massive and progressive neuronal loss in specific areas such as the hippocampus and cortex unequivocally underlies cognitive deterioration and memory loss in Alzheimer's disease, noteworthy alterations take place in the neurogenic microenvironments, namely, the subgranule layer of the dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone. Compromised neurogenesis presumably takes place earlier than onset of hallmark lesions or neuronal loss, and may play a role in the initiation and progression of neuropathology in Alzheimer's disease. Neurogenesis in the adult brain is thought to play a role in numerous forms and aspects of learning and memory and contribute to the plasticity of the hippocampus and olfactory system. Misregulated or impaired neurogenesis on the other hand, may compromise plasticity and neuronal function in these areas and exacerbate neuronal vulnerability. Interestingly, increasing evidence suggests that molecular players in Alzheimer's disease, including PS1, APP and its metabolites, play a role in adult neurogenesis. In addition, recent studies suggest that alterations in tau phosphorylation are pronounced in neurogenic areas, and may interfere with the potential central role of tau proteins in neuronal maturation and differentiation. On the other hand, numerous neurogenic players, such as Notch-1, ErbB4 and L1 are substrates of alpha- beta- and gamma- secretase that play a major role in Alzheimer's disease. This review will discuss current knowledge concerning alterations of neurogenesis in Alzheimer's disease with specific emphasis on the cross-talk between signaling molecules involved in both processes, and the ways by which familial Alzheimer's disease-linked dysfunction of these signaling molecules affect neurogenesis in the adult brain.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1. The cross-talk between Alzheimer's disease-linked signals and neurogenic signals
A summary of suggested function of signals in Alzheimer's neuropathology and in neurogenesis in the adult brain [Abbreviations: ADAM= a disintegrin and metalloproteinase, BACE= beta amyloid cleaving enzyme, PS1=presenilin 1, PEN= presenilin enhancer, sAPPα= soluble amyloid precursor protein alpha, Aβ= beta amyloid, AICD= APP intracellular domain, NICD= notch intracellular domain, APOE=apolipoprotein E, LRP= low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein, EGFR= epidermal growth factor receptor].
Figure 2
Figure 2. Adult neural progenitor cells in culture
Neural progenitor cells derived from the SVZ or SGL can be cultured. They form neurospheres and proliferate in the presence of FGF2 and EGF. The image shows neurospheres labeled with antibodies raised against beta-tubulin (red), GFAP (green) and counterstained with DAPI (blue).

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 104 PubMed Central articles

See all "Cited by" articles

Publication types

Feedback