The Regulation of Type I Interferon Production by Paramyxoviruses

J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2009 Sep;29(9):539-47. doi: 10.1089/jir.2009.0071.


Experimentally, paramyxoviruses are conventionally considered good inducers of type I interferons (IFN-alpha/beta), and have been used as agents in the commercial production of human IFN-alpha. However, in the last few years it has become clear that viruses in general mount a major challenge to the IFN system, and paramyxoviruses are no exception. Indeed, most paramyxoviruses encode mechanisms to inhibit both the production of, and response to, type I IFN. Here we review our knowledge of the type I IFN-inducing signals (by so-called pathogen-associated molecular patterns, or PAMPs) produced during paramyxovirus infections, and discuss how paramyxoviruses limit the production of PAMPs and inhibit the cellular responses to PAMPs by interfering with the activities of the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), mda-5, and RIG-I, as well as downstream components in the type I IFN induction cascades.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antigens, Surface / metabolism*
  • DEAD-box RNA Helicases / metabolism
  • GPI-Linked Proteins
  • Humans
  • Interferon Type I / genetics
  • Interferon Type I / immunology
  • Interferon Type I / metabolism*
  • Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1
  • Membrane Proteins / metabolism*
  • Paramyxoviridae / immunology*
  • Paramyxoviridae / pathogenicity
  • Paramyxoviridae Infections / genetics
  • Paramyxoviridae Infections / immunology*
  • Paramyxoviridae Infections / virology*
  • Receptors, Pattern Recognition / immunology
  • Receptors, Pattern Recognition / metabolism
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Signal Transduction


  • Antigens, Surface
  • GPI-Linked Proteins
  • Interferon Type I
  • LY6E protein, human
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Receptors, Pattern Recognition
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • IFIH1 protein, human
  • DEAD-box RNA Helicases
  • Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1