Both the epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway and microRNA (miRNA) play an important role in lung cancer development and progression. To address the potential role of miRNA in epidermal growth factor receptor signaling, we identified miR-125a-5p as a downstream target, using an miRNA array. We further demonstrated that miR-125a-5p inhibited migration and invasion of lung cancer cells. Moreover, miR-125a-5p regulated the expression of several downstream genes of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling. Importantly, examination of lung cancer samples revealed a significant correlation of miR-125a-5p repression with lung carcinogenesis. Taken together, our results provide compelling evidence that miR-125a-5p, an epidermal growth factor-signaling-regulated miRNA, may function as a metastatic suppressor.