Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the immediate safety and efficacy as well as the clinical outcome and long-term angiographic results of endovascular treatment (EVT) of middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms.
Materials and methods: This is a retrospective review of patients in whom coiling of MCA aneurysms was attempted over a 7-year period. Institutional review board approval and informed written consent were obtained. This study included 153 patients (90 women, 63 men; mean age, 49.5 years +/- 11.7 [standard deviation]) with 174 MCA aneurysms (71 unruptured, 103 ruptured). Complications of EVT, clinical outcome, and the results of either cerebral digital subtraction angiography (DSA) or magnetic resonance (MR) angiography were analyzed at initial, intermediate (6-18 months), and late (2-7 years) follow-up.
Results: Coiling was performed in 160 (92%) aneurysms in 141 patients. Periprocedural complications were observed in 31 (19.4%) procedures, including aneurysm perforations (n = 7, 4.4%) and thromboembolic events (n = 24, 15.0%). EVT induced permanent morbidity in eight (5.7%) patients, with severe neurologic impairment in three (2.1%) and two deaths (1.4%). Of 114 MCA aneurysms controlled by using DSA (n = 50) or MR angiography (n = 64) at 50 months +/- 14, 73 (64%) remained completely occluded, 31 (27.2%) recurred, and 12 (10.5%) major recurrences were retreated. A balloon remodeling technique allowed treatment of complex aneurysms (n = 63) but was associated with more recurrences in the long term (42.6%) than aneurysms treated without balloon assistance (16.4%; P = .016).
Conclusion: EVT of MCA aneurysms was safe and long-term monitoring of patients showed a low rate of recurrence requiring retreatment. However, complex anatomy and long-term recurrences have to be addressed when considering EVT for MCA aneurysms.